By Dr. Robert C. Ferguson
WHAT DO EDUCATORS SAY?
WHAT DO STUDENTS SAY?
WHAT DO PARENTS SAY?
WHY SHOULD YOU PLAY CHESS? WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS?
In a 1973-74 Zaire study conducted by Dr. Albert Frank,
employing 92 students, age 16-18, the chess-playing experimental group
showed a significant advancement in spatial, numerical and
administrative-directional abilities, along with verbal aptitudes,
compared to the control group. The improvements held true regardless of
the final chess skill level attained. , ,
In a 1974-1976 Belgium study, a chess-playing experimental
group of fifth graders experienced a statistically significant gain in
cognitive development over a control group, using Piaget's tests for
cognitive development. Perhaps more noteworthy, they also did
significantly better in their regular school testing, as well as in
standardized testing administered by an outside agency which did not
know the identity of the two groups. Quoting Dr. Adriaan de Groot:
...``In addition, the Belgium study appears to demonstrate that the
treatment of the elementary, clear-cut and playful subject matter can
have a positive effect on motivation and school achievement
generally...'' , , 
In a 1977-1979 study at the Chinese University in Hong Kong by
Dr. Yee Wang Fung, chess players showed a 15% improvement in math and
science test scores. 
A four-year study (1979-1983) in Pennsylvania found that the
chess-playing experimental group consistently outperformed the control
groups engaged in other thinking development programs, using
measurements from the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal and the
Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. , ,
, , , 
The 1979-1983 Venezuela ``Learning to Think Project,'' which
trained 100,000 teachers to teach thinking skills and involved a sample
of 4,266 second grade students, reached a general conclusion that chess,
methodologically taught, is an incentive system sufficient to accelerate
the increase of IQ in elementary age children of both sexes at all
socio-economic levels. , , ,
During his governor's teacher grant from the New Jersey State
Department of Education, William Levy found that chess consistently
(1980-1987) promoted self-esteem after a year of exposure. Many
students' self-images improved dramatically. , 
According to a two-year study conducted in Kishinev under the
supervision of N.F. Talisina, grades for young students taking part in
the chess experiment increased in all subjects. Teachers noted
improvement in memory, better organizational skills, and for many
increased fantasy and imagination (Education Ministry of the Moldavian
Republic, 1985). , 
In his 1986 pilot study, Dr. Ferguson found that it is
possible to enhance achievement by focusing on individuals' modality
strengths, creating an individualized thinking plan, analyzing and
reflecting upon one's own problem solving processes, sharing his/her
thinking system with peers, and modifying the system to integrate other
modalities. , , 
During the 1987-88 ``Development of Reasoning and Memory through
Chess,'' all students in a rural Pennsylvania sixth grade
self-contained classroom were required to participate in chess lessons
and play games. None of the pupils had previously played chess. The
pupils significantly improved in both memory and verbal reasoning. The
effect of the magnitude of the results is strong (eta 2 is .715 for the
Memory test gain compared to the Norm). These results suggest that
transfer of the skills fostered through the chess curriculum did occur. ,
A 1989-92 New Brunswick, Canada study, using 437 fifth graders
split into three groups, experimenting with the addition of chess to the
math curriculum, found increased gains in math problem-solving and
comprehension proportionate to the amount of chess in the curriculum. 
A 1990-92 study using a sub-set of the New York City Schools
Chess Program produced statistically significant results concluding that
chess participation enhances reading performance. ,
“Playing Chess: A Study of Problem-Solving Skills in Students
with Average and Above Average Intelligence,'' a study by Philip
Rifner, was conducted during the 1991-1992 school term. The study sought
to determine whether middle school students who learned general problem
solving skills in one domain could apply them in a different domain.
Data indicated that inter-domain transfer can be achieved if teaching
for transfer is an instructional goal. 
During the 1995-1996 school year, two classrooms were selected in
each of five schools. Students (N = 112) were given instruction in chess
and reasoning in one classroom in each school. Pupils in the chess
program obtained significantly higher reading scores at the end of the
year. It should be noted that while students in the chess group took
chess lessons, the control group (N = 127) had additional classroom
instruction in basic education. The control group teacher was free to
use the ``chess period'' any way he/she wanted, but the period was
usually used for reading, math or social studies instruction. The
control groups thus had more reading instruction than the chess groups.
Even so, the chess groups did better on the reading post-test;
therefore, the gains in the chess groups were particularly impressive. 
In a 1994-97 Texas study, regular (non-honors) elementary
students who participated in a school chess club showed twice the
improvement of non-chess players in Reading and Mathematics between
third and fifth grades on the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills. ,
Researchers and educators have questioned what causes this growth.
The Venezuelan study claimed: ``Chess develops a new form of thinking,
and this exercise is what contributes to increase the intelligence
quotient.''  More recent researchers speculate
that it is the growth of new synaptic connections. Chess promotes the
growth of dendrites!
Why does chess have this impact? Briefly, there appear to be at least
seven significant factors: 1) Chess accommodates all modality strengths.
2) Chess provides a far greater quantity of problems for practice. 3)
Chess offers immediate punishments and rewards for problem solving. 4)
Chess creates a pattern or thinking system that, when used faithfully,
breeds success. The chess playing students had become accustomed to
looking for more and different alternatives, which resulted in higher
scores in fluency and originality. 5) Competition. Competition fosters
interest, promotes mental alertness, challenges all students, and
elicits the highest levels of achievement (Stephan, 1988). 6) A learning
environment organized around games has a positive affect on students'
attitudes toward learning. This affective dimension acts as a
facilitator of cognitive achievement
(Allen & Main, 1976). 
Instructional gaming is one of the most motivational tools in the
good teacher's repertoire. Children love games. Chess motivates them to
become willing problem solvers and spend hours quietly immersed in
logical thinking. These same young people often cannot sit still for
fifteen minutes in the traditional classroom. 7) Chess supplies a
variety and quality of problems. As Langen (1992) states: ``The problems
that arise in the 70-90 positions of the average chess game are,
moreover, new. Contexts are familiar, themes repeat, but game positions
never do. This makes chess good grist for the problem-solving mill.''
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Chess is part of the curricula in nearly 30 countries. In Venezuela,
Iceland, Russia and other countries, chess is a subject in all public
In Vancouver, BC, the Math and Chess Learning Center, recognizing the
correlation between chess playing and math skills development, has
developed a series of workbooks to assist Canadian students in math. 
In Harriet Geithmann's article ``Strobeck, Home of Chess,';' The
National Geographic Magazine, May 1931, pp. 637-652, we find that this
medieval village in the Harz Mountains of Germany has taught the royal
game in its public schools for years. Chess began in Strobeck in 1011. 
In ``Chessmen Come to Life in Marostica,'' The National Geographic
Magazine, November 1956, by Alexander Taylor, pp. 658-668, we see an
Italian town reviving a romantic legend of the Middle Ages, in which
suitors played chess for the hand of a lady fair. 
The mathematics curriculum in New Brunswick, Canada is a text series
called Challenging Mathematics, which uses chess to teach logic and
problem solving from grades 2 to 7. Using this curriculum, the average
problem-solving score of pupils in the province increased from 62% to
81%. The Province of Quebec, where the program was first introduced, has
the highest math grades in Canada, and Canada scores better than the USA
on international mathematics exams. , ,
Former U.S. Secretary of Education Terrell Bell encouraged knowledge
of chess as a way to develop a preschooler's intellect and academic
The State of New Jersey passed a bill legitimizing chess as a unit of
instruction within the elementary school curriculum. On December 17,
1992, New Jersey Governor Jim Florio signed into law a bill to establish
chess instruction in public schools. A quote from the bill states ``In
countries where chess is offered widely in schools, students exhibit
excellence in the ability to recognize complex patterns and consequently
excel in math and science...'' 
Funding for chess activity is available under the ``Educate America
Act'' (Goals 2000), Public Law 103-227, Section 308.b.2.E.: ``Supporting
innovative and proven methods of enhancing a teacher's ability to
identify student learning needs and motivating students to develop
higher order thinking skills, discipline, and creative resolution
methods.'' The original wording of this section included ``such as
chess'' and passed Senate that way, but the phrase was deleted later in
Conference Committee. 
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Several articles discuss chess as a tool to assist children of all
Dr. Stefurak, a cognitive neuropsychologist, stated that ``chess
instruction informs the mind and the emotions in such a way as to
structure an emergent mental circuit where motivation and ability
multiply to produce achievement in chess and school and life.'' 
In December 1996, Arman Tajarobi wrote: ``For the past three years,
I've been a witness to an experiment held in 24 elementary schools in my
town: The school board allowed these schools to replace an hour of math
classes by a chess course each week for half of their students. For
three consecutive years, the groups who received the chess formation
have had better results in math than those who did not. This year (the
fourth year), the school board has allowed any school that wants to
provide its students with a chess formation to do so.'' 
John Artise (B.S., M.A.) draws upon his years of psychological
research in chess to identify the contribution chess makes in education
and learning. He identifies four areas of growth: memory improvement,
logic, observation and analysis, and operant conditioning. ``Chess and
Education,'' John Artise. 
The chess program funded by Oakland (California) Youth at Risk
program proves to be an effective vehicle for saving troubled youth. 
Chess program in the troubled East Harlem district, New York, also
rescues kids from drugs and gangs. 
Saratoga Springs editorial: ``Chess is the last best hope for this
country to rescue its skidding educational system and teach the young
generation the forgotten art of nurturing an attention span.'' 
In his book ``Your Child's Intellect,'' former U.S. Secretary of
Education Terrell Bell encourages some knowledge of chess as a way to
develop a preschooler's intellect and academic readiness (Bell, 1982,
pp. 178-179). 
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WHAT DO EDUCATORS SAY?
``Not only have the reading and math skills of these children soared,
their ability to socialize has increased substantially, too. Our studies
have shown the incidents of suspension and outside altercations have
decreased by at least 60 percent since these children became interested
in chess.'' --Assistant Principal Joyce Brown at the Roberto Clemente
School in New York, 1988 
Dr. Fred Loveland, superintendent of the Panama City schools, voiced
his opinion: ``Chess has taught my students more than any other
The article ``Chess Improves Academic Performance'' from the NY
School Chess Program features a number of testimonies from school
principals, including: ``Not only have the reading and math skills of
these children soared, their ability to socialize has increased
substantially, too. Our studies have shown that incidents of suspension
and outside altercations have decreased by at least 60% since these
children became interested in chess.'' 
``It's the finest thing that ever happened to this school. ...chess
makes a difference...what it has done for these children is simply
beyond anything that I can describe.'' 
``I see them (students) able to attend to something for more than an
hour and a half. I am stunned. Some of them could not attend to things
for more than 20 minutes.'' -- Jo Bruno, Principal, P.S. 189 
Dr. Calvin F. Deyermond, Assistant Superintendent for Curriculum and
Instruction for the North Tonawanda City School District, wrote: ``Chess
develops intellectual, esthetic, sporting, decision making,
concentration, and perseverance skills. We have seen the effects of this
wonderful game in our classroom and as an extracurricular activity. Not
only is it mentally challenging but it attracts not only gifted pupils
but also students at all levels of learning. Many students who have been
experiencing problems, particularly in mathematics and reading,
sometimes demonstrate remarkable progress after learning chess.'' 
Rob Roy of Connecticut: ``Children with special problems can also
learn chess. I taught a successful course for emotionally and
educationally disadvantaged children in the Waterbury schools and used
chess as a way for them to learn and practice self-control.It was like
turning on switches in their heads. You see the child looking at a
problem, breaking it down, and then putting the whole thing back
together. The process involves recall, analysis, judgment and abstract
Public School 68 in the Bronx noted standardized scores increased
11.2% in reading and 18.6% in math during the 1994-95 school year.
Principal Cheryl Coles wrote: ``As encouraging as our scores are, the
benefits of our Chess Education Program far exceeded anything that these
scores could ever hope to indicate. There were significant outgrowths in
varying degrees in all curriculum areas. Such as: increased enthusiasm
for learning, increase in general fund of knowledge, increase in pupil
attendance, increase in self-confidence, increase in parent involvement,
Beulah McMeans, a guidance counselor at Morningside Elementary School
in Prince George's County, MD, uses chess ``to help raise the
self-esteem and higher order thinking skills for young students,
particularly those at risk.'' 
``Intuitively, I feel what the kids learn from chess carries over to
their everyday lives. The change shows up in their improved critical
thinking and problem solving. It gets kids to think for themselves.'' --
Fred Nagler, Principal, P.S. 123 
WHAT DO STUDENTS SAY?
“Chess has significantly increased my logical and mathematical
skills. In fact, because of the effect of chess, I am going to major in
mathematics and computer science in college, both of which utilize the
aforementioned skills.'' Matthew Puckett 
The skills chess offers to those who play it are gold mines. It
teaches the faithful players how to approach life. It teaches people
that are having dilemmas that here is more than one answer to a problem.
While your adversary is looking at the issue through a single point, you
as the great chess player that you are, can take a step back and look at
the picture through many points.'' Sultan Yusufzai 
Because of chess, I feel that my life has been enriched both mentally
and socially. I have improved my critical thinking skills in everyday
life through chess.'' Brandon Ashe 
WHAT DO PARENTS SAY?
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Andrew Rozsa, psychologist, speaking of his gifted son: ``He has had
real social and behavioral difficulties since he was 18 months old... He
was thrown out of several schools... Things became pretty bad at about
age 9 ... Nothing seemed to work, nothing. ... Today he is a straight A
student and his behavior problems are minimal (but not trivial). ...
Sorry, no control subjects, no double blind, no defined independent
variables (actually there are two: chess and age).
Nonetheless, I think that the great improvements we have seen are, to
a large extent, due to chess.'' , 
``Chess is one of the most meaningful things I've ever seen enter
this school system.'' Dee Estelle Alpert
``I want to see chess introduced into the curriculum, right alongside
math, music, and art.'' Oscar Shapiro 
At the 40th World Chess Congress in 1969, Dr. Hans Klaus, Dean of the
School of Philosophy at Humboldt University in Berlin, commented upon
the chess studies completed in Germany: ``Chess helps any human being to
elaborate exact methods of thinking. It would be particularly useful to
start playing chess from the early school days ... Everybody prefers to
learn something while playing rather than to learn it formally…it
produces in our children an improvement in their school achievements.
Those children who received systematic instructions in chess improved
their school efficiency in different subjects, in contrast with those
who did not receive that kind of instruction.'' 
Because of the overwhelming research demonstrating the benefits of
chess and because of the brain research theorizing the growth of
dendrites, chess should be integrated into the school curriculum at the
Chess is a new way of solving the old problem of poor education. From
the streets of Harlem to Venezuela's public schools the sport of kings
has been implemented as an effective tool for teaching students to
utilize their higher order thinking skills and to strive to overcome
personal problems to reach their full potential. In light of these facts
it is not unreasonable to imagine chess as a broader part of schools in
America. Chess could very well be one of the missing components for
America to regain its place at the top for educating its young people.
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WHY SHOULD YOU PLAY CHESS? WHAT ARE THE
Chess is a game for people of all ages. You can learn to play
at any age and in chess, unlike in many other sports, you don't ever
have to retire. Age is also not a factor when you're looking for an
opponent --young can play old and old can play young.
Chess develops memory. The chess theory is complicated and
many players memorize different opening variations. You will also learn
to recognize various patterns and remember lengthy variations.
Chess improves concentration. During the game you are focused
on only one main goal -- to checkmate and become the victor.
Chess develops logical thinking. Chess requires some
understanding of logical strategy. For example, you will know that it is
important to bring your pieces out into the game at the beginning, to
keep your king safe at all times, not to make big weaknesses in your
position and not to blunder your pieces away for free. (Although you
will find yourself doing that occasionally through your chess career.
Mistakes are inevitable and chess, like life, is a never-ending learning
Chess promotes imagination and creativity. It encourages you
to be inventive. There are an indefinite amount of beautiful
combinations yet to be constructed.
Chess teaches independence. You are forced to make important
decisions influenced only by your own judgment.
Chess develops the capability to predict and foresee
consequences of actions. It teaches you to look both ways before
crossing the street.
Chess inspires self-motivation. It encourages the search of
the best move, the best plan, and the most beautiful continuation out of
the endless possibilities. It encourages the everlasting aim towards
progress, always steering to ignite the flame of victory.
Chess shows that success rewards hard work. The more you
practice, the better you'll become. You should be ready to lose and
learn from your mistakes. One of the greatest players ever, Capablanca
said, "You may learn much more from a game you lose than from a
game you win. You will have to lose hundreds of games before becoming a
Chess and Science. Chess develops the scientific way of
thinking. While playing, you generate numerous variations in your mind.
You explore new ideas, try to predict their outcomes and interpret
surprising revelations. You decide on a hypothesis, and then you make
your move and test it.
Chess and Technology. What do chess players do during the
game? Just like computers they engage in a search for the better move in
a limited amount of time. What are you doing right now? You are using a
computer as a tool for learning.
Chess and Mathematics. You don't have to be a genius to figure
this one out. Chess involves an infinite number of calculations,
anything from counting the number of attackers and defenders in the
event of a simple exchange to calculating lengthy continuations. And you
use your head to calculate, not some little machine.
Chess and Research. There are millions of chess resources out
there for every aspect of the game. You can even collect your own chess
library. In life, is it important to know how to find, organize and use
boundless amounts of information. Chess gives you a perfect example and
opportunity to do just that.
Chess and Art. In the Great Soviet Encyclopedia chess is
defined as "an art appearing in the form of a game." If you
thought you could never be an artist, chess proves you wrong. Chess
enables the artist hiding within you to come out. Your imagination will
run wild with endless possibilities on the 64 squares. You will paint
pictures in your mind of ideal positions and perfect outposts for your
soldiers. As a chess artist you will have an original style and
Chess and Psychology. Chess is a test of patience, nerves,
will power and concentration. It enhances your ability to interact with
other people. It tests your sportsmanship in a competitive environment.
Chess improves schoolwork and grades. Numerous studies have
proven that kids obtain a higher reading level, math level and a greater
learning ability overall as a result of playing chess. For all those
reasons mentioned above and more, chess playing kids do better at school
and therefore have a better chance to succeed in life.
Chess opens up the world for you.
You don't need to be a high
ranked player to enter big important competitions. Even tournaments such
as the US Open and the World Open welcome players of all strengths.
Chess provides you with plenty of opportunities to travel not only all
around the country but also around the world. Chess is a universal
language and you can communicate with anyone over the checkered plain.
Chess enables you to meet many interesting people.
make life-long friendships with people you meet through chess.
Chess is cheap. You don't need big fancy equipment to play
chess. In fact, all you may need is your computer! (And we really hope
you have one of those, or else something fishy is going on here.) It is
also good to have a chess set at home to practice with family members,
to take to a friend's house or even to your local neighborhood park to
get everyone interested in the game.
CHESS IS FUN! Dude, this isn't just another one of those board
games. No chess game ever repeats itself, which means you create more
and more new ideas each game. It never gets boring. You always have so
much to look forward to. Every game you are the general of an army and
you alone decide the destiny of your soldiers. You can sacrifice them,
trade them, pin them, fork them, lose them, defend them, or order them
to break through any barriers and surround the enemy king. You've got
To summarize everything in three little words: Chess is Everything!
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 Robert Ferguson, ``Chess in Education Research
Summary,'' paper presented at the Chess in Education A Wise Move
Conference at the Borough of Manhattan Community College, January
 Albert Frank, ``Chess and Aptitudes,'' doctoral
dissertation, 1974, Trans. Stanley Epstein.
 Johan Christiaen, ``Chess and Cognitive
Development,'' doctoral dissertation, 1976, Trans. Stanley Epstein.
 Donna Nurse, ``Chess & Math Add Up,'' Teach,
May/June 1995, p. 15, cites Yee Wang Fung's research at the Chinese
University of Hong Kong.
 Robert Ferguson, ``Teaching the Fourth R
(Reasoning) through Chess,'' School Mates, 1(1), 1983, p. 3.
 Robert Ferguson, ``Developing Critical and
Creative Thinking through Chess,'' report on ESEA Title IV-C project
presented at the annual conference of the Pennsylvania Association for
Gifted Education, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, April 11-12, 1986.
 Robert Ferguson, ``Teaching the Fourth R
(Reflective Reasoning) through Chess,'' doctoral dissertation, 1994.
 Isaac Linder, ``Chess, a Subject Taught at
School,'' Sputnik: Digest of the Soviet Press, June 1990, pp. 164-166.
 Rafael Tudela, ``Learning to Think Project,''
Commission for Chess in Schools, 1984, Annex pp. 1-2.
 Rafael Tudela, ``Intelligence and Chess,''
 William Levy, ``Utilizing Chess to Promote
Self-Esteem in Perceptually Impaired Students,'' a governor's teacher
grant program through the New Jersey State Department of Education,
 Robert Ferguson, ``Tri-State Area School Pilot
Project Findings,'' 1986.
 Robert Ferguson, ``Development of Reasoning and
Memory through Chess,'' 1988.
 Louise Gaudreau, ``tude Comparative sur les
Apprentissages en Mathématiques 5e Année,'' a study comparing the
Challenging Mathematics curriculum to traditional math, 1992. (The
authors are Michel and Robert Lyons. The ISBN is 2-89114-472-4. This
collection has been sold to La Chenelière & McGraw Hill in
Montreal. You can reach them at (514) 273-7422. Ask for Michael Soltis.)
 Stuart Margulies, ``The Effect of Chess on
Reading Scores: District Nine Chess Program Second Year Report,'' 1992.
 Chess-in-the-Schools, Web page at www.symbolic.com/chess/chsgym.htm.
 Philip Rifner, ``Playing Chess: A Study of
Problem-Solving Skills in Students with Average and Above Average
Intelligence,'' doctoral dissertation, 1992.
 Stuart Margulies, ``The Effect of Chess on
Reading Scores,'' 1996.
 James Liptrap, ``Chess and Standardized Test Scores,''
Chess Coach Newsletter, Spring 1999, Volume 11 (1), pp. 5 & 7.
 L.E. Allen & D.B. Main, ``Effect of
Instructional Gaming on Absenteeism: the First Step,'' The Journal for
Research in Mathematics Education, 1976, 7 (2), p. 114.
 Naciso Rabell Mendez, ``Report by the World
Chess Federation (FIDE) to the United Nations Organization (UNO),'' June
1988, quotes Dr. Klaus' comments.
 Kathleen Vail, ``Check This, Mate: Chess Moves
Kids,'' The American School Board Journal, September 1995, pp. 38-40.
 Yasser Seirawan, ``Scholastic Chess -- Feel the
Buzz,'' Inside Chess, February 21, 1994, p. 3.
 Roger Langen, ``Putting a Check to Poor Math
Results,'' The Reporter, December 1992.
 Dr. Fred Loveland personal communication.
 Chess Improves Academic Performance, Christine
 Personal letter from Dr. Calvin F. Deyermond,
Assistant Superintendent for Curriculum and Instruction for the North
Tonawanda City School District.
 Personal letter to Allen Kaufman from Principal
Cheryl Coles, June 9, 1995.
 Carol Chmelynski, ``Chess said to promote
school performance and self-esteem,'' School Board News, July 6, 1993,
Vol. 13 (12), pp. 7-8.
 John Artise, ``Chess and Education.''
 San Jose Mercury News, 4-3-96.
 Jo Coudert, ``From Street Kids to Royal
Knights,'' Readers Digest, June 1989.
 ``Editorial: Chess gives hope for our youth,''
The Saratogian, March 12, 1991.
 Arman Tajarobi, e-mail from December, 1996.
 Andrew J. Rozsa, Birmingham, Alabama, Newsgroup
 Harriet Geithmann, ``Strobeck, Home of Chess,''
The National Geographic Magazine, May 1931, pp. 637-652.
 ``Check Mates,'' Fairfield County Advocate,
Mar. 20, 1989.
 Terrell Bell, Your Child's Intellect, Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1982, pp.178-179.
 Chess'n Math Association, Canada's National
Scholastic Chess Organization, 1681 Bayview Avenue, Toronto, Ont. M4G
3C1 (web page at www.chess-math.org/)
 Dan Edelman, ``New Jersey Legislature Passes Chess
Bill into Law,'' Chess Coach Newsletter, Spring 1993, Vol. 6 (1), pp. 1 & 3.
 Math and Chess Puzzle Centre, 3550 West 32 nd
Avenue, Vancouver, BC V6S 1Z2 (Web page at www3.bc.sympatico.ca/mathchess/)
 Alexander Taylor, ``Chessmen Come to Life in
Marostica,'' The National Geographic Magazine, November 1956, pp.
 Terrell Bell, Your Child's Intellect, 1982, pp.
 Scholar-Chessplayer Outstanding Achievement
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For additional information about the studies reviewed in this
summary, please contact the United States Chess Federation by calling
914-562-8350 or by writing to: U.S. Chess
3054 NYS Route 9W
New Windsor, NY 12553
The USCF web page address is www.uschess.org
For a list of research available from the USCF: www.uschess.org/scholastic/sc-research.html
For a manual and/or a CD ROM on Developing Higher Order Thinking
Skills Through Chess, a Pennsylvania State Department of Education
approved course, contact the American Chess School at 140 School Street,
Bradford, PA 16701 or e-mail email@example.com
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